The European Union and Russia
May 29th 2008 | BRUSSELS
From The Economist print edition
The European Union has agreed on what it wants from Russia. But not how fast
WHETHER it was brave or clumsy depends on your point of view. But Lithuania (population 3.5m) has nudged the European Union (population 500m) into a slightly tougher stance towards Russia. Talks on a (long overdue) partnership agreement were first postponed because of Russia’s embargo on Polish meat. When that was lifted, the obstacle became Lithuanian demands for firmer terms concerning energy, judicial co-operation and Russia’s treatment of countries such as Georgia.
是勇敢还是莽撞，随你怎么说。但350万人 口的立陶宛是已经刺激拥有5亿人口的欧盟对俄罗斯采取了较为强硬的态度。关于迟迟未能达成的欧盟与俄罗斯的伙伴关系协议的谈判，第一次推迟是因为俄罗斯禁 运波兰的肉制品。而当禁令解除，谈判的障碍又成了立陶宛要求稳定能源供应，要求司法合作，要求与格鲁吉亚之类的国家一样得到俄罗斯的特殊照顾。
EU diplomats fumed about Lithuania’s tactics, complaining of belated timing, poor preparation and unrealistic expectations. A few said this was just the sort of thing to strengthen the view in “old Europe” that letting neurotic and primitive ex-communist easterners into their club had been a mistake. Certainly some foreign ministers’ meetings discussing the issue have been remarkably stormy by EU standards.
立陶宛 的要求激怒了欧盟的政客们，他们指责立陶宛不分时机，准备不足，白日做梦。有些人称立陶宛的这些要求恰好是增强了“老欧洲”的概念，让那些神经兮兮，不够 成熟的东欧前共产分子加入欧盟本来就是个错误。当然，依照欧盟的标准来说，一些外长已经在多次会议上就这一问题吵得不可开交了。
But a meeting on May 27th agreed upon a new negotiating mandate, with small but significant changes on some points sought by Lithuania. “They have attracted attention to Russia’s behaviour in Georgia, which is timely and good,” says an official from a neighbouring country. The talks on the partnership agreement will start at an EU-Russia summit in Siberia next month.
但是5月27日的会议却通过了一个新的谈判规则，就立陶宛提出的一些意见做了微小但意义重大的变动。“欧盟的政客们已经注 意到了俄罗斯对格鲁吉亚采取的措施，这注意来得及时，是件好事。”格鲁吉亚邻国的一位官员这样说道。关于欧盟与俄罗斯的伙伴协议的谈判将于下月的西伯利亚 峰会上启动。
The question is how fast they will go. Germany wants things sewn up, at least in principle, within a year. That seems too soon to countries that are hawkish on Russia, as well as to the European Commission. This camp wants a more detailed deal, in which Russia would have to make big changes on such contentious issues as its energy monopolies, investor protection and illegal migration. In return the EU would offer a laxer visa regime and let Russian energy companies expand westwards more easily.
问题是谈判的进展会如何。德国想在一年之内达成一致，至少要确立基本框架。这个进度 对于那些对俄采取强硬措施的国家来说太快了，对欧盟来说也是一样。这些态度强硬的国家想要一个更加细化的条约，这就意味着俄罗斯将不得不在能源垄断、投资 保护以及非法移民等饱受争议的问题做出更大让步。作为交换条件，欧盟将启动一个更为宽松的对俄签证系统，并使俄方的能源公司西进变得更加容易。
Other countries are moving to counter what they see as Germany’s overly Russia-friendly policies. Poland and Sweden this week launched their own plan, called the “eastern partnership”, to offer generous trade and other co-operation to Ukraine and Georgia, as well as to other interested countries. The aim is to recreate the model of the “Visegrad” group of four central European countries in the early 1990s, which helped ex-communist states to prepare for what at the time seemed the highly uncertain prospect of EU membership.
另外一些国家认为德国对俄罗斯的政策过于友 善，而采取了与之相反的做法。本周，波兰和瑞典出台了自己的方案，名为“东方伙伴”，提供优惠贸易以及其它合作给乌克兰、格鲁吉亚以及其他一些感兴趣的国 家。该方案的目的就是要重建90年代初期四个中欧国家的维兹格里德集团，让这些前共产主义国家为当时似乎风雨飘摇的欧盟未来做好准备。
For the first time in any EU initiative, the plan explicitly includes Belarus (albeit only on a “technical” level for now). Russian regions such as Kaliningrad are also welcome to apply for some of the goodies that a partnership agreement can offer, such as better border crossings and environmental projects. Ex-communist Poland and rich, neutral Sweden may prove an effective combination. Their forceful foreign ministers, Radek Sikorski and Carl Bildt, get on well. Bravery is good. But brains are even better.
在欧盟所有的倡议中，白俄罗斯首次被清晰地囊括其中（虽说目前只是在技术层面上）。俄罗 斯的一些地区，如加里宁格勒也可以申请从伙伴协议的好处中分一杯羹，比如说更好的过境条件，环保项目等。前共产主义的波兰和富有、中立瑞典也许会结成有效 的联盟。影响力颇大的两国外长瑞迪克·思科奇与卡尔·布兰迪特很是投缘。有勇气是不错。但是有头脑更为重要。